blood vessels

Formation of thrombosis and its risk factors


In daily life, we often hear this kind of situation. A good person wakes up in the morning, is half-length numb, and speaks unclearly. When he goes to the hospital for examination, it is a “brain stalk”; one day someone has finished the surgery and recovered very well. Ready to go to the toilet after lunch on the day before discharge, sudden chest pain and shortness of breath, fell in the bathroom, and then unconscious, expert consultation is considered postoperative “pulmonary embolism.” These scenes have a common “murderer” — the blood clot. So do you know what a blood clot is? How was it formed? What factors can form a thrombus? Today we will tell you about the blood clots.

How is the thrombus formed?

A thrombus is a small piece of blood that forms on the surface of the endovascular surface of the cardiovascular system or at the site of repair. In a variable fluid-dependent type, the thrombus consists of insoluble fibrin, deposited platelets, accumulated white blood cells, and trapped red blood cells. The blood clot is commonly referred to as a “blood clot”. It plugs the passage of blood vessels in various parts of the body like a stopper, causing the relevant organs to have no blood supply and causing sudden death. When a blood clot is produced in the blood vessels of the brain, it causes a cerebral infarction. When the coronary artery is produced, it forms a myocardial infarction. Blocking the lungs is a “pulmonary embolism.”

Why are there blood clots in our bodies? There are coagulation systems and anticoagulation systems in human blood. Under normal conditions, the two maintain a dynamic balance to ensure normal blood flow in the blood vessels and no thrombosis. However, under special circumstances, such as slow blood flow, clotting factor, vascular injury, resulting in hypercoagulability or weakened anticoagulant function, this balance will be broken, making people in an “easy to shackle state.” Most of the thrombosis, before the onset, there is no symptoms and feelings, and even to the hospital cardiovascular and cerebrovascular specialists for routine examination, blood lipids, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, CT and so on all indicators are normal. Because the thrombus is extremely concealed before the onset of the disease, the symptoms are severe after the onset, and most of them are sick in a quiet situation. Therefore, it is very important to actively prevent the onset of thrombosis.

Thrombosis formation mechanism

1. Cardiac and endosteal injury

(1) When the inner membrane is damaged, the endothelial cells degenerate, necrotic, and the collagen fibers under the endothelium are exposed, thereby activating the XII factor of the endogenous coagulation system, and the endogenous coagulation system is activated.

(2) The damaged endometrium can release tissue coagulation factors and activate the exogenous coagulation system.

(3) The damaged endometrium becomes rough, which makes the platelets easy to aggregate and mainly adheres to the exposed collagen fibers.

2. Blood flow changes

Slow blood flow and vortexing of blood flow.

3. Changes in blood properties

Mainly refers to the increase in blood coagulation, seen in the increase in platelets and clotting factors. Such as after severe trauma, postpartum and major surgery.

Symptoms of thrombosis

  1. Softening, dissolving and absorbing: small thrombus can be completely dissolved and absorbed; large thrombus can be partially dissolved and softened and is easily affected by blood flow to form an embolus.
  2. Mechanization and recanalization: After thrombus formation, endothelial cells and fibroblasts grow from the vessel wall to the thrombus, forming granulation tissue and gradually replacing the thrombus. This process is thrombotic.
  3. Calcification: Calcium deposits can occur after thrombus formation, which is neither dissolved or absorbed and is not fully machined. The calcification of the thrombus in the vein is called venous stone.

Thrombosis has nine risk factors

Thrombosis is a multifactorial process of interaction and interaction between a group of genetic and environmental factors. Specifically, thrombosis has the following nine risk factors:

  1. Smoking is easy to cause blood clots. Smoking causes arteriosclerosis, although it is invisible to the naked eye, studies have shown that the blood vessel wall of smokers is inflamed and damaged. The amount of certain proteins (especially fibrinogen) in the smoker’s body is also increased, making the blood more viscous.

  1. Oral contraceptives are prone to thrombosis. Estrogen contained in oral contraceptives changes blood components, making them more clotting, leading to an increased likelihood of venous thrombosis. If the oral contraceptive user also smokes, the risk of thrombosis will increase further.
  2. Varicose veins are related to thrombosis. The formation of varicose veins is associated with blood reflux, which can cause inflammation around the ankle, damage the walls of the veins, and cause a variety of problems including thrombosis, bleeding, and skin damage.
  3. Causes of surgery. Surgery is a recognized cause of deep vein thrombosis and is particularly common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery or hip replacement surgery. There are many reasons. For example, the patient must be hungry for at least 6 hours before the operation, and the body is in a dehydrated state; after general anesthesia, it needs to be lying for a long time.
  4. Long-distance flight is easy to cause blood clots. The venous thrombosis caused by long-distance flight is also known as the “economy class syndrome”, which is caused by changes in blood flow caused by lack of exercise when sitting in the seat for a long time. In addition, the cabin is pressurized and hypoxia also promotes the formation of blood clots.
  5. Too little activity can lead to thrombosis. When people pay attention for a long time, they will remain sedentary and cause blood to gather and form a blood clot.

  1. Dehydration easily leads to thrombosis. Excessive sweating and illness (including fever, flu, vomiting, and diarrhea) can cause dehydration, which can significantly alter blood components.
  2. Tumors can also cause thrombosis. In recent years, the National Institutes of Health has recommended that patients with unexplained deep vein thrombosis be screened for tumors that may be hidden. According to statistics, people over the age of 40, if there are unexplained deep vein thrombosis, they are 10% more likely to have a malignant tumor.
  3. Family history is related to the formation of thrombosis. There are many proteins in the blood that are involved in the normal coagulation process, but some families have mutations that make family members more likely to develop thrombosis.

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