In recent years, blood clots have become more and more common in our lives, and have even become a chronic disease that seriously threatens people’s health. So what are the types of thrombus? What are the hazards? Let’s take a look together.
- White thrombus (pale thrombus). It occurs in areas with rapid blood flow (such as arteries, ventricles) or during periods of rapid blood flow during thrombosis (such as the beginning of a mixed-blood clot, the head of a propagating thrombus). Microscopically, the white thrombus is mainly composed of many platelet-shaped trabeculae that are clustered in a coral-like shape. Many neutrophils adhere to the surface and form a leukocyte layer, which is presumably attracted by the chemotaxis of cellulose disintegration products. The platelet trabeculae form a network of cellulose due to the action of activated coagulation factors, and the mesh contains a small number of red blood cells. The naked eye is grayish white, the surface is rough and corrugated, and the material is hard and closely connected to the blood vessel wall.
- Mixed thrombus. The main part of the continuous thrombus of the vein (body) is a layer of red and white streaks, which is a mixed thrombus. The formation process is thrombus mainly composed of platelet trabeculae so that the blood flow downstream forms a vortex, which regenerates another platelet-based thrombus. The blood between the two is coagulated and becomes red blood cells. The main thrombus. If it is alternated, it is a mixed thrombus. In the mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation, a spherical thrombus can be formed in the left atrium; this thrombus and thrombus in an aneurysm can be seen as a layered structure of alternating grayish white and reddish brown, called layered thrombus, which is also a mixture. thrombus.
- Red thrombus. It occurs when the blood flow is extremely slow or even stopped, and its formation process is the same as the extravascular coagulation process. Therefore, the red thrombus is seen in the mixed thrombus gradually increasing the obstruction of the lumen, and after the local blood flow stops, it often constitutes the tail of the continuous thrombus. Under the microscope, the cellulosic mesh is filled with blood cells such as normal blood distribution. The naked eye is dark red. The fresh red blood clot is moist and has a certain elasticity. The old red blood clot is absorbed due to moisture, becomes dry, brittle, lose elasticity, and is easy to fall off to cause an embolism.
- Transparent thrombus (hyaline thrombus). This kind of thrombus occurs in the small blood vessels of the microcirculation and can only be seen under the microscope. It is also called microthrombus, which is mainly composed of cellulose and is found in disseminated intravascular coagulation.
The harms of thrombosis
The terrible thing about a blood clot is that it can cause local blockage, which can cause organ ischemia, hypoxia, and failure. Thrombosis can occur in arteries anywhere in the body. If it appears in the bifurcation of the cerebral blood vessels, it will cause cerebral infarction or cerebral embolism, and it may cause coronary heart disease in the coronary artery. These diseases can cause sudden death. Therefore, the risk of thrombosis is very serious. Specifically in the following aspects:
1. Acute myocardial infarction
When the coronary arteries of the heart are embolized due to increased arteriosclerosis or thrombosis, blood flow is interrupted, resulting in local myocardial ischemic necrosis, which means that the human body has an acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction is a common disease. When males in China are over 60 years old, the risk of developing such diseases is as high as 13.2%.
The most direct cause of myocardial infarction is that the thrombus can block the coronary artery. Therefore, if you want to avoid such problems, you should reduce the amount of thrombosis in your body.
2. Cause pulmonary thrombosis
After the thromboembolism enters the pulmonary circulation, the consequences are very fatal, not only can cause pulmonary thromboembolism, but also lead to pulmonary infarction. According to clinical statistics, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary thromboembolism vary from only mild symptoms to severe shock and even sudden death. Pulmonary thromboembolism is mainly caused by thrombus obstructing the pulmonary blood vessels, causing blood circulation disorder, lung tissue ischemia and hypoxia, and finally causing lung tissue failure.
3. Induced cerebral infarction
Cerebral infarction is a very serious cerebrovascular disease. If the patient is not rescued in time, it will not only cause paralysis but also cause aphasia and lead to sudden death.
There are many factors caused by cerebral infarction, such as high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and increased platelets. But the most important and most important cause is thrombosis. These emboli from the heart and large blood vessels flow into the thinner cerebral arteries and then plugged. Causes ischemia and hypoxia in brain tissue.
Therefore, in order to prevent cerebral infarction, the most important thing is to prevent and suppress antithrombotic.
4. Cause lower limb gangrene
When you mention a blood clot, people will think of a heart plug and a drain plug. It seems that thromboembolism only occurs in these two parts. In fact, it is not the case that blood clots flow through the arteries. It is possible to flow to any part of the body. According to clinical statistics, 20% of thromboembolism is in the cerebral blood vessels, 10% in the visceral blood vessels. Limb thrombosis accounts for 70% to 80%, and lower extremity embolism is 5 times that of the upper limb.
If the lower extremity is embolized, it should be rescued in time. Otherwise, it will cause organ tissue necrosis, which should be paid attention to.
5. Cause kidney failure
The kidney, commonly known as the kidney, is an important organ that excretes human metabolites and water. If there is a problem with the kidneys, the toxins in the human body will be difficult to discharge. Severe can cause uremia. There are many factors that cause renal dysfunction, and renal vascular thrombosis is one of the most important factors.
Thrombosis in the blood vessels of the kidney is similar to the formation of cerebral thrombosis, so some people call it “kidney stroke” and once a kidney stroke occurs, the consequences will be quite serious. Therefore, we must pay more attention to this piece.